Canadian Art Galleries 2022

Looking to discover great Canadian art? Whether you are in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Calgary or Vancouver there are some great art galleries to discover! 

Gallery Categories

Galleries are typically categorized by period. 

Contemporary art galleries show living and actively producing artists. Toronto’s Nicholas Metivier Gallery and Montreal / Toronto’s Galerie de Bellefeuille are two of Canada’s most prominent contemporary galleries. Contemporary galleries like Vancouver’s Catriona Jeffries and Toronto’s Daniel Faria Gallery go beyond typical wall art and showcase conceptual art. 

Historic galleries resell historic, modern and impressionist art from the turn of the 20th century and Post-War galleries sell abstract art from the 1950s. Eric Klinkhoff Gallery of Montreal and Loch Gallery of Calgary and Toronto are two of the longest running Canadian historic art galleries. Miriam Shiell Fine Art of Toronto specializes in post-war abstract art.

There are also galleries that specialize in art from different cultural communities. 

There is a rich tradition of galleries celebrating both contemporary and historic Indigenous art. Douglas Reynolds Gallery in Vancouver offers a large selection of historic Haida, Northern Coastal and Kwakwaka’wakw art. La Guild in Montreal showcases the work of established and emerging contemporary Indigenous artists. 

The Chinese art world has become a cultural force and Canada is lucky to have a variety of galleries showcase both historic and contemporary Chinese art. Vancouver Suzen Gallery sells traditional Chinese calligraphy and Montreal’s Han Modern and Contemporary represents a variety of contemporary Chinese artists. Both Heffel and Waddington’s auction houses host yearly Asian art sales that feature both historic and contemporary Chinese art. 

Many galleries specialize in editioned prints. These works on paper are an affordable way to enter the art market. Station 16 Editions of Montreal sells editioned prints by emerging Canadian artists, whereas Galerie de Bellefeuille sells prints by international artists.  

Auction houses sell art through live and online auctions. Live auctions at Heffel, Waddinton’s and Cowley Abbott take place twice a year in the fall and spring. Online auctions happen throughout the year and generally last about a month. You can buy both contemporary and historic art at auction.

Toronto Art Galleries

Contemporary Galleries 

Angell Gallery

Galerie de Bellefeuille

Bau-Xi Gallery

Blouin Division

Clint Roenisch

Cooper Cole

Corkin Gallery

Daniel Faria Gallery

Dianna Witte Gallery Contemporary Art

Nicholas Metivier Gallery

Olga Korper Gallery

Patel Brown Gallery

Paul Petro Contemporary Art

Stephen Bulger Gallery

Taglialatella Galleries 

Inuit & Indigenous Galleries

Feheley Fine Art

First Arts

Chinese Galleries

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Waddington’s Auction House

Galerie de Bellefeuille

Nikola Rukaj Gallery

Mayberry Fine Art

Post-War & Historic Galleries

Alan Klinkhoff

Canadian Fine Art

Miriam Shiell Fine Art

Mayberry Fine Art

Nikola Rukaj Gallery

Loch Gallery

Roberts Gallery

Auction houses

Cowley Abbott

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Waddington’s Auction House

Montreal Art Galleries

Contemporary Galleries

Art Mur

Galerie de Bellefeuille

Blouin Division

Bradley Ertaskiran

Duran Mashaall

Galerie Hughes Charbonneau

Galerie Laroche/Joncas

Mark Leibner

Pierre-François Ouellette Art Contemporain

Galerie Robertson Ares

Galerue Robert Poulin

Station 16 

Galerie Youn

Yves Laroche

Inuit & Indigenous Galleries

Galerie Le Chariot

Galerie Images Boreales

Dorset Fine Arts

La Guilde

Chinese Galleries

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Han Modern and Contemporary

Station 16 Editions

Galerie de Bellefeuille

Duran Mashaal

Post-War & Historic Galleries

Galerie Simon Blais

Lacerte Art Contemporain

Han Art

Galerie Alan Klinkhoff

Galerie Eric Klinkhoff

Galerie Cosner 

Auction houses

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

ByDealers Auction House

Ottawa Art Galleries

Contemporary Galleries

Alpha Art Gallery

Central Art Garage

Wall Space

Inuit & Indigenous Galleries

Snow Goose Gallery

Galerie d’Art Vincent

Post-War & Historic Galleries

Galerie d’Art Vincent

Wallack Galleries

Auction houses

Pridham’s Auction House Inc.

Walker’s Auctioneers & Appraisers

Calgary Art Galleries

Contemporary Galleries

Christine Klassen Gallery

Loch Gallery 

Masters Gallery

Norberg Hall

Trépanier Baer Gallery

Wallace Galleries

Post-War & Historic Galleries

Loch Gallery 

Masters Gallery

Trépanier Baer Gallery

Auction houses

Hodgins Art Auctions

Levis Fine Art Auctions

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Vancouver Art Galleries

Contemporary Galleries

Bau-Xi Gallery

Catriona Jeffries

Equinox Gallery

Jones Gallery

Kurbatoff Gallery

Macaulay & Co. 


Inuit & Indigenous Galleries

Coastal Peoples Fine arts Gallery

Douglas Reynolds Gallery

Eagle Spirit Gallery

Fazakas Gallery

Marion Scott Gallery

Macaulay & Co. 

Chinese Galleries

Suzen Gallery

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Post-War & Historic Galleries

Petley Jones Gallery

Auction houses

Heffel Fine Art Auction House

Other Canadian Galleries

Mayberry Fine Art, Winnipeg

Studio 21, Halifax

Christina Parker Gallery, St John’s

Oeno Gallery, Prince Edward County

2021 Canadian Spring Auctions

On June 3rd, 9th and 23rd, 2021, Waddington’s, Cowley Abbott and Heffel respectively hosted their spring live auction sales. 

The art market was strong going into this auction season. Art has seen a boom throughout COVID – stuck at home buyers used this down time to expand their collections. 

Both the spring and fall 2020 auction seasons saw important Canadian art selling well over their auction house estimates (sometimes two to three times over asking). Notable examples include a painting by the contemporary Indigenous artist Lawrence Yuxweluptun, Untitled (lot 30, Heffel), which sold two times its estimate for $55,250 and an early Lawren Harris (Lot 42, Waddington’s) that sold well above its estimate for $132,000.

Despite a relaxing of restrictions, this spring auction season gave more strong results. The average sell through rate for the three houses was 91%. Of special note, the Cowley Abbott auction came close to being a white glove sale with only two unsold lots the entire night!

This season, Emily Carr took centre stage with two exceptional sales at Heffel. Tossed by the Wind (Lot 116), sold for $3,121,250 and Swirl (lot 120), sold for $2,341,250. Both paintings sold two times their estimated price.

Historic Art

Mrs. Decco, by Prudence Heward, lot 28, Cowley Abbot

Carr’s success spoke to a wider appetite amongst collectors to purchase work by historic women artists. At Cowley Abbot a portrait, Mrs. Decco, by Prudence Heward (lot 28) set a new auction record, selling for $90,000. At Heffel, the historic watercolour artist Frances Anne Beechey Hopkins set a new auction record for the painting, A Green Pool, French River, Canada (lot 101). The painting sold six times its estimate for $193,250.

Cornelius Krieghoff and Homer Watson, contemporaries of Hopkins, also had impressive sales.   

Quebec Farm, by Krieghoff (Lot 122), sold at Heffel for $571,250, a new auction record for the artist. Another large scale painting by the artist, Moonlight, (lot 16) sold at Waddington’s for $390,000, well above its estimate. The Old Mill, by Homer Watson (Lot 3), sold at Cowley Abbott, three times its estimate for $38,400. 

Historic art from the late 19th century was at its market height in the mid 1980s. Since then tastes have shifted away from art from this period towards modern and post-war art. While 19th century Canadian art may not be of central interest, these stellar sales are a reminder that iconic works from this period continue to increase in value. 

Post-War Art

Jean Albert Mcewen, Sans Titre, lot 18, Heffel

Results from the top end of the post-war market were mixed. 

Two large works by the acclaimed Jean Paul Riopelle (lots 31 and 42) failed to sell. But a very small painting by Riopelle sold six times over its estimate for $205,250. This 1978 painting was from a critical juncture in the artist’s career when he returned to Quebec after spending two decades in Europe. This return to Quebec would inspire a new body of work around ideas of Canada’s north. Work from this period was featured this year in an important exhibition at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. The sale proved that it’s not always size but often the story behind a work that matters. 

A contemporary of Riopelle, Indigenous artist Rita Letendre, set a new auction record for a large scale work from her early Automatiste period. This unique painting sold four times its estimate for $289,250 at Heffel. Another standout from the Montreal school was a powerful Jean Albert Mcewen, Sans Titre, that sold two times its estimate for $181,250 at Heffel.

Art by colour fields artists like William Perefudoff and Jack Bush performed well. A mid-sized Perehudoff (lot 29), AC-01-007, sold two times its estimate for $22,500 at Heffel. Bush had two impressive sales. First at Waddington’s the painting Green Up (lot 26) by the artist sold for $324,000 and later at Heffel Yellow Road Mark (lot 16) sold for almost twice its estimate for $391,250.

Contemporary Art

Wanda Koop, Untitled, Lot 40, Waddington’s

Contemporary art sold surprisingly well this spring. As a general rule, Canadian contemporary art tends to sell below its retail price at auction. But this season proved that exceptional works will sell for exceptional prices!

An iconic painting from Wanda Koop’s Green Zone Series sold well above its estimate for $31,200 at Waddington’s. This series from the early 2000s explored the confused way in which the media covered the American invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan. Some twenty years later the work has renewed cultural significance.

Green Tree Blue Tree, by Kim Droland (lot 43) sold at Cowley Abbott for $66,000, an auction record for the artist. The work was originally exhibited as part of an important retrospective for the artist at the McMichael Canadian Art Collection. Another contemporary landscape artist, John Hartman, set an auction record for a painting, The Old Port and Mount Royal (lot 75), at Cowley Abbott. The painting is part of his iconic cityscape series from the early 2000s. The painting sold for $24,000.

2020 Fall Auction Sales

December 2nd and 3rd, 2020, Heffel and Cowley Abbott respectively hosted their fall live auction sales. 

A week before the auctions, Toronto implemented new COVID restrictions effectively halting all in person viewings of the two auction houses’ preview shows. The sales were held virtually and bidding was restricted to phone, absentee and online.

Despite these challenges the market proved resilient and sales were strong. The average sell through rate for the two houses was 87% – up from 85% in July and September. 

The quality of the work for sale at both Heffel and Cowley Abbott was striking. Several important and unique works were for sale including an iconic1965 Jack Bush (lot 24), a very large James Morrice (lot 116) and an unique John Little (lot 152).

A take away from these sales was the importance of date when evaluating the worth of a painting. Every artist has a prime period that is most critically acclaimed. Works from this period are often harder to come by and will have a higher value than other works by the same artist. 

Top Sales

cowley abbott jack bush auction record
Jack Bush, Column on Browns, 1965, Cowley Abbott

At the top of the market, Jean-Paul Riopelle narrowly held onto top position with two million dollar sales at Heffel. Sans Titre (lot 16) and La ligne d’eau (lot 38), sold for $1.4M and $1.2M respectively. Sans Titre was the auction cover lot and is an important early work by the artist. Although an impressive figure the sale fell slightly below market expectations and a recent 1.7 M sale for a similar painting (Sans titre, lot 59) at the Sotheby’s Rembrandt to Richter Evening Sale held in London this July.

Next at Heffel, the post-impressionist painter James Morrice sailed past the million dollar mark with a $1.1M sale for La plage (lot 116). It was an important sale that will help to solidify the artists top end market. The sale was only the artist’s forth million dollar sale at auction and his third highest realised price at auction. 

The artist continued to have a fantastic week with two more important sales. A small study Coast in Brittany (lot 28) sold four times its presale low estimate for $45,600 at Cowley Abbott and another Brittany landscape, Harvest Time – Brittany (lot 143), sold six times the presale low estimate for $97,250 at Heffel.

Jack Bush capped off the auction week setting a new auction record for the 1960s painting Column on Browns (lot 24). The painting sold for $870,000 at Cowley Abbott, $100,000 over the artist’s most recent auction record for a similar sash style painting (Red Side Right, lot 3), set in July 2013 at Christie’s Post War and Contemporary Art sale.

Strong mid-market

john little heffel auction record
John Little, Rue Fabrique, Heffel

Sales performed equally well at the mid-range of the market. 

The Heffel Impressionist and Modern sale started with a blast when a Group of Seven era A.J. Casson, Lake Rosseau (lot 104), sold three times over it’s presale low estimate for $79,250.

John Little capped off the night at Heffel, selling an early 1950s period painting, Rue Fabrique, Quebec (lot 152), four times its presale low estimate for $133,250. The sale was an auction record for the artist.  

What made the sale even more exceptional is the fact that the same work sold in November 2015 at Waddington’s (lot 6) for $30,680. Little’s former auction record was set only last year at Heffel’s fall sale when another early 1950s canvas sold for $85,250. Both sales suggest growth in Little’s market. This is likely influenced by his recent retirement from painting and a 2017 retrospective, City Life from 1951, and book publication by the Alan Klinkhoff Gallery.

Two works by Jock Macdonald and Tom Hodgson of the Painters Eleven group also performed well. Macdonald’s 1956 Pulsing Sound (lot 20) sold two times over its presale low estimate for $31,250. Hodson’s early Non Objective (Bluish) (lot 11) sold almost three times over its presale low estimate for $72,000.

Growth in female art

Rita Letendre, Lutte, 1963, Heffel

Female artists are dramatically underrepresented at auction. This fall, 15% of Cowley Abbott’s available lots and 9% of Heffel’s were produced by women. There is, however, a growth trend in the price of many female artists at auction.  

Emily Carr continues to be an overall market leader at auction. This fall Carr had three important sales suggesting continued market strength. Cowley Abbott sold a late landscape, Forest Glade (lot 30), for $216,000 and Heffel sold another landscape from the same period, June (lot 115), for $277,250. A third watercolour, South Bay, Skidegate (lot 124), from the late 1920’s sold well over its estimate at Heffel for $811,250. 

What sets the earlier watercolour apart from the two late period Carr’s sold the same week? South Bay was painted on the island of Haida Gwaii and during an important period for the artist (when she was exchanging with members of the Group of Seven). The iconic location and period both contribute to the value of the painting. 

Another female artist who is quietly establishing her market is Rita Letendre. In 2017 the Art Gallery of Ontario held an important retrospective, Rita Letendre, Fire & Light, that reframed her legacy as not only an important member of the Quebec Automatiste movement but also a pioneering voice of post-war indigenous art. 

Letendre’s price at auction has consistently grown over the past couple years. This sale was no exception. A highlight for the artist was the sale at Heffel of an early 1950s work, Lutte (lot 28), that sold two times over it’s presale low estimate for $52,250. 

Contemporary Art

John Hartman Cowley Abbott Auction Sale
John Hartman, Tar Island, 2001, Cowley Abbott

The Canadian contemporary art market is being led by indigenous artists. This trend extends to contemporary art being sold at auction. At Heffel a recent Lawrence Yuxweluptun painting, Untitled (lot 30), sold two times over its presale low estimate for $55,250. The sale was a new auction record for the artist. 

More generally, contemporary art continues to be an area of opportunity for bargain hunters. Unlike the international art market, Canadian contemporary art tends to sell below its normal retail value at auction. 

A fantastic John Hartman, Tar Island (lot 64), came to auction at Cowley Abbott. The painting has a great date (2001) and highlights the artist’s aesthetic (soft brushy skies, impasto landscape). The work did well and sold between it’s presale estimate for $9,000. Another great find was an Evan Penny, Back of Danny #3 (lot 46), hanging sculpture that sold at Heffel for $28,125.

The next live auction cycle will take place in spring 2021.

What Sold at Art Toronto?

This year Art Toronto, under the leadership of Mia Nielson, held a digital fair from October 28 to November 8th. The fair brought together galleries from across the country on the Art Toronto platform. The online fair gave visitors a chance to browse the offering of the different galleries and attend online art talks hosted on the site. Several galleries also hosted smaller in person events in Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto and Montreal.

Galleries reported steady sales throughout the fair supporting positive market conditions suggested in September with the results from the Cowley Abbott and Waddinton’s live auctions. 

Corporate and Public Acquisitions

Moridja Kitenge Banza, Chiromancie #11 no8, 2020
Acrylic on canvas
152,5 x 91,5 cm (60” x 36”)
Galerie Hugues Charbonneau

Moridja Kitenge Banza, represented by Galerie Hugues Charbonneau, was hands down the breakout star of Art Toronto! He sold four works to the TD Corporate Art Collection and another painting, Christ Pantocrator N13, to the Art Gallery of Ontario

Banza was born in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo and is a Canadian Congolese artist living in Montreal. Earlier in 2020 he was awarded the Sobey Art Award (along with the other 25 long listed artists). His work has been shown at both the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal. His success at Art Toronto indicates the artist’s reach is growing beyond Quebec! I would not be surprised to hear of an important Toronto show happening in the near future.

The AGO also acquired work by Northwest Coast Indigenous artist Luke Parnell of MKG127. Parnell was another artist highlighted at this year’s fair. As part of the official programming, Parnell presented a video and sculpture project. In this conceptual piece the artist responded to a 1959 documentary by the famous Haida artist Bill Reid.

The AGO made several other purchases including several works by Jennifer Rose Sciarrino of Daniel Faria Gallery; Nina Josefowitz of General Hardware Contemporary

Finally, the museum made an important acquisition of a series of five historic photographs by Mina Keene of the Stephen Bulger Gallery. These photographs from the early 1900s will boost representation of historic female artists in the museum’s collection. 

The Scotia Bank corporate art collection purchased Road Trip by Niall McClelland of Clint Roenisch and Zebulon Perron purchased a work by Jessica Thalmann, Pleats Coculus, of Angell Gallery.

Contemporary Art Sales

Kathryn Macnaughton
Cool Breeze
48 X 42 in
Acrylic on Canvas
Beau-Xi Gallery

Katheryn Macnaughton of Bau-Xi Gallery continues to be a force to watch. This abstract painter continues to sell out as quickly as she can produce. Early in the fair her gallery reported the sale of three works.

United Contemporary reported the sale of two portraits by the artist Gordon Shadrach. Shadrach was outspoken about the representation of BIPOC in Canadian Art this summer and used social media to raise awareness around the issue. In 2018 he was part of a group show “We are Here” exhibited at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the Royal Ontario Museum. 

Janet Werner of Bradley Ertaskiran, Shannon Bool of Daniel Faria, and Ken Nicol of Olga Korper Gallery also reported strong sales. 

Historic Art Sales

Paul Emile Borduas
Ramage, 1956
Oil on canvas
15 x 18
CFA Gallery

The resale market (or secondary market) of important historic art also performed well. 

Two important post-war abstract paintings sold during the fair. CFA Gallery sold a Paul Emile Borduas, Ramage, and Miriam Shiell Fine Art sold an important Jack Bush, Festive Spread.

Galerie Simon Blais used the fair to promote an important show of work by the female abstract painter Françoise Sullivan and reported the sale of four works by the artist during the fair. 

As usual the Group of Seven was well represented and Roberts Gallery reported the sale of an important AJ Casson, Madawaska Riven.

Finally western art had a strong showing with a sale of a William Kurelek, Old Crows Nest Colon, by Loch Gallery and two Joe Fofard sculptures, Heaven and Yorkton Bull, sold at Slate Fine Art Gallery.

Art Toronto Pop Up Shows

There are a couple great pop up shows opening in Toronto this weekend as part of Art Toronto !

Historic Art

Lise Gervais, Le mur du son, 1962, oil on canvas, 36.25×36.25 in.

Calgary gallery Masters Gallery will be exhibiting works in the Four Seasons Hotel through till November 1, 2020. They’ve brought an impressive collection of Impressionist, Group of Seven and Automatiste era art. For anyone who wants to get to know Quebec abstract art beyond Jean-Paul Riopelle, they have a beautiful Marcelle Ferron and Lise Gervais on display!


Joseph Hartman, Outer Shoals #3, Georgian Bay, ON, 2015

Over at the Stephen Bulger Gallery five contemporary galleries have joined together to organize a kind of mini fair. Galleries include London’s Michael Gibson Gallery, Montreal’s Pierre-François Ouellette Art Contemporain, Calgary’s Trepanier Baer Gallery and Vancouver’s Wil Aballe Art Projects. This will be a great show for anyone looking to see great examples of Canadian photography. Michael Gibson will have a selection of photos by Michael Snow. Stephen Bulger will show works by Joseph Hartman – who did one of my all time favorite series on the studios of famous Canadian artists!


Wanda Koop, SEEWAY – Floe, 2019, Acrylic on canvas, 30” x 40”

Finally the René Blouin Gallery and Gallery Division merged to form Blouin Division this summer. They will host a show featuring a selection of artists from both galleries in their Toronto space. As an added bonus Georgia Scherman Projects will also be using the space to showcase their roster of artists. The two shows promise a great collection of contemporary painting including works by Wanda Koop, Marie Claire Blais and Melanie Authier!

Book a private gallery tour or for more information on my services please contact Clinton Art Services.

Top Art Toronto Programming

My top three picks for great art talks to take advantage of next week as part of Art Toronto! With so many free art talks happening digitally it is easier than ever to get informed.

I’ve pulled out a couple great talks that focus on culturally significant artists that have been recognized by both the market and important public institutions.

London and Jack Bush

Sunday November 1 at 1PM EST, Michael Gibson Gallery will host a virtual talk with the Director of the Jack Bush Catalogue Raisonné project, Sarah Stanners. She will discuss a 1973 work by the artist, London #8.

London #8, Acrylic on Canvas, July 1973, 65 x 75 in.

I love that the talk will focus on an single work! Stanners will give context to the work by exploring Bush’s late career when he was at the height of his international success.

Early Michael Snow

November 4 at 3PM EST, the Art Gallery of Hamilton will host a virtual talk with the curator James King of the exhibition, Early Snow: Michael Snow 1947 – 1962.

The exhibition will look at the first 15 years of Snow’s career before he left Toronto for New York. Viewers are invited to consider this period of experimentation and its influence on Snow’s later iconic Walking Women series.

Added bonus the gallery Michael Gibson Gallery has three photographs by Michael Snow on offer at their Art Toronto Pop up show at the Stephen Bulger Gallery.

Dale Chihuly Drawings

On November 8 at 7:30 PM EST, the Sandra Ainsley Gallery is hosting a virtual opening for their Dale Chihuly exhibition. As a Montrealer this American glass art artists has a special place in my heart! I absolutely love his sculpture, the Sun, that stands outside the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts !

Basket Drawing, 2015, 30H x 22W”, Acrylic Paint on Paper

Chihuly takes the tradition of glass art and brings it into the realm of large scale installation sculpture. Chihuly is a creative force that bridges an American West Coast aesthetic with the Italian glass blowing tradition. I’m especially excited that this show will include examples of his drawings.

Talks will be hosted on the Art Toronto online portal. Fair runs October 28 until November 8th.

To Organize a virtual visit of the fair or for more information on my services please contact Clinton Art Services.

Spring 2020 Canadian Auction Results

In May 2020, due to COVID regulations, the Canadian live auctions were postponed. Heffel rescheduled their spring sale for July 15th. Waddington’s and Cowley Abbott postponed their sales until September 17th and 24th respectively.

How has the economic uncertainty of the pandemic affected the Canadian art market?

Going through the results it is clear that the Canadian art resale market (secondary market) has proven to be resilient to the negative economic effects of COVID. Post COVID auction sales averaged a sell through rate of 85% – which is actually up from 80%, in Fall 2019. 

Lawren Stewart, Pine Trees, Kempenfelt Bay, Lot 42, C.1916, oil on board, 14 x 10.5 ins

Top Sales

At the top of the market, Heffel sold an Alex Colville and a Jean Paul Riopelle for $2.4 million and $1.2 million respectively. Waddinton’s had a standout sale of an early Lawren Harris (Lot 42) selling well above it’s estimate and reaching a realised price of $132,000. Cowley Abbott’s cover lot a David Milne (Lot 9) and a late addition Guido Molinari (Lot 48a) both sold for $82,600.

Kathleen Morris, The Fruit Shop, Ottawa, Lot 17, oil on canvas, 18.25 x 24 ins

Female artists from the Group of Seven era (1915 to 1930) did very well. At the Heffel sale Yvonne M. Housser (Lot 129) set a new artist record with a $202,250 sale. Montreal artist Kathleen Morris (Lot 17) set the stage at Cowley Abbott with a $62,150 sale. 

Walter Joseph (W.J.) Phillips. Totems, Alert Bay, Lot 101, watercolour on paper, 10 x 14 1/2 ins

The usual names dominated the top end of the market: Jean Paul Riopelle, Lawren Harris and Tom Thomson. But from an investment perspective, I’m more interested in the artists who most exceeded their pre-sale estimate. Two standouts that sold five times their low estimate were a Walter J. Phillips watercolour (Lot 101) selling for $157,250 at Heffel and a William Perehudoff (Lot 8) selling for $66,000 at Waddington’s. 

Contemporary Art

David Altmejd, Untitled, Lot 28, 2007, Plexiglass, wood, gold chains, metal wire and glue sculpture, 80 1/2 x 32 x 62 ins

There were of course a handful of disappointments. I was surprised to see a David Altmejd (Lot 28) sculpture at Heffel go unsold. Especially after the sensational 2015 exhibition, Flux, of his work at the MAC in 2015! In my opinion the sculpture would make a great addition to a corporate collection showcasing contemporary Canadian art. 

Despite an impressive offering, sales of contemporary art at auction remain soft. Unlike the United States, Canada does not have a developed secondary market for living contemporary artists (anyone who started working after the 1990s). 

Waddington’s offered an iconic Wanda Koop (Lot 51) that sold below it’s estimate and Cowley Abbott had an early David Alexander (Lot 71) that failed to sell. For collectors with a little patience there is definite opportunity in purchasing contemporary art at auction.

Kent Monkman (Lot 29) was the only contemporary artist to bulk the trend selling at Waddington’s within its presale estimate for $40,000. This is the artist’s third market setting sale in the last 12 months, following a realised price of $82,500 in June 2020 at ByDealer’s and $91,500 in November 2019 at Waddington’s.

The next live auction cycle will take place in late November. The market will have to face the US election outcome and COVID but with the information available to date we can expect resilience.  

Five Abstract Artists to Watch

Bobbie Burgers

Bobbie Burgers, Float Like a Butterfly #1, 2019

This year the Bobbie Burgers surprised the art world by taking on a new gallery Nicholas Metivier Gallery. She used the opportunity to make a shift in her aesthetic. She is currently represented by Equinox Gallery in Vancouver, BC and Nicholas Metivier Gallery in Toronto, ON.

I love seeing the evolution of an artist’s style! Burgers is not a small name in the Canadian art world, she has dominated the scene for years now. It would be easy for her to stick to her popular flower inspired canvases. But with this new body of work, she blows up the flowers and gives us something that exposes her debt to the abstract expressionist movement.

In her artist statement she credits the great early abstract painter Joan Mitchell as an influence. Seeing the new work, I couldn’t help thinking about the Mitchell painting on view at Heffel Auction House last November. There is a clear call to the older artist in Burgers new work.

At the same time she hasn’t abandoned her earlier style. I see a thoughtful but intentional evolution of style with this new body. It’s very exciting!

Kathryn Macnaughton

Kathryn Macnaughton, Parallel, 2019

This Toronto artist builds on the history of Abstract Expressionism and combines it with a contemporary aesthetic. She is currently represented by Bau-Xi Gallery in Toronto, ON, and Vancouver, BC.

With a background in graphic design Macnaughton composes lively compositions by combining graphic shapes. In her early work these shapes referenced nature (female form, plant life, ect) but more recently she has let herself go full abstract.

What sets Macnaughton’s work apart is the loose wash treatment that fill her shapes. There is this wonderful tension between the hard edge of the shape outlines and the soft bleeds that define their silhouettes. The work feels both controlled and chaotic and loads of fun!

Melanie Authier

Melanie Authier, Cowgirl Melee, 2018

Melanie Authier is a painter’s painter. Her work engages and plays with the act of painting. She is currently represented by the Georgia Sherman Project in Toronto, ON.

Authier describes herself as an abstract artist who uses strategies borrowed from representational art. Processed through an abstract vocabulary she explores elements of the painting tradition like colour, edges, mark and space.

Her work is a return to a 1950s school of abstract painting where all of the thinking and play happens on the canvas. The artist starts by creating a problem (maybe two colours that don’t complement or a total lack of colour) and than she tries to find a solution through the act of painting. There is such swagger and confidence to her work!

David Alexander

David Alexander, Writing on the Water, 2019

David Alexander is an established contemporary painter who has been exhibiting across Canada since the 1980s. He is currently represented by Bau-Xi Gallery in Toronto, ON, and Vancouver, BC. This fall several of his early works have come to auction at Heffel Auction and Cowley Abbott. An artists auction record speaks to the longevity of their market.

As a collector, it is also an opportunity to study the artists progression as an artist. Comparing the early Alexander painting with his current works highlights his use of space, an essential element in his work.

In his early art there is a certain freedom in his depiction of space but he ultimately maintains a classical depiction of depth in his landscape.

In his more contemporary work the landscape is separated and flattened out. Alexander breaks his work into two categories, wet and dry. Landscape is made separate from waterscapes. Also by focusing on one part of nature he plays with perspective and flattens out any sense of space. Instead of depth he gives us a kind of staking sensation.

By reducing the sense of space Alexander pulls his landscapes into the realm of abstract painting. I’ve always loved art that straddles the abstract and landscape genre and Alexander is a standout example.

Marie Claire Blais

Marie-Clair Blais, Entrevoir le Jour (Horizon 7), 2017

Marie-Claire Blais is an exciting artist because she is not afraid to chase an idea. She is currently represented by Blouin Division in Toronto, ON, and Montreal, QC.

Over the past decade she has been making art that explores and plays with the material burlap. It started during a 2013 residency in Mexico, when Blais noticed the omnipresence of this commercial material. For Blais there was an interesting tension between the cheap cost of the material and its central importance.

Moving the material into the gallery sphere, Blais challenges her audience to associate a commercial grade material with fine art. Over the next several years Blais has experimented and played with the material in a variety of ways.

Already using aerosol spray paint in her practice she first started using the burlap as a kind of stencil. Pulling and loosening the weave she used her burlap stencil to build up colour and create paintings that from a distance look like intricate tapestries.

Next, returning to a black and white composition, Blais started to work directly on the burlap – using it as her canvas. Dying the fabric she plays with the texture of the material giving an Agnues Martin grid feel to the work.

Finally in her latest 2020 series Blais uses the material as a painting surface but takes the work a step further by cutting and reforming her surface into a kind of sculptural form.

This is a great example of an artist who makes play a central force in their practice.

Art Toronto: Collector’s Experience

Contemporary artists are generally shown at one to three galleries. Every year or so, these galleries will host a solo exhibition of the artist’s new work. Finding a good selection of their work is a straightforward process.  

A major challenge for collectors when sourcing Canadian historic art is that generally, a famous historic artist’s inventory is spread out over several galleries – and most galleries only have at most a couple examples of an artist’s work in their inventory at a time. And so, knowing what is available across the market means visiting a lot of galleries.

Art Toronto brings together a large cross section of Canadian galleries under one roof. It’s an opportunity for collectors to get a more global sense of what Canadian historic art is available for sale. It’s also an opportunity to compare gallery prices.

The challenge of Art Toronto, for collectors, is navigating the fair. Trying to find a Jack Bush, a Jean-Paul Lemieux or a William Perehudoff among all the installation and contemporary art can feel like a scavenger hunt.

For collectors or Canadian art enthusiasts looking to see Canadian historic art, this post will help you discover the different famous Canadian artists showing at Art Toronto and show you where to find them. 

Early Canadian Art

One critique I have of the fair is the lack of representation of early 19th century Canadian art. Over the past five years Art Toronto has made its focus international and contemporary art. Important Canadian historic art Galleries like Loch Gallery, Mayberry Fine Art and Alan Klinkhoff don’t show at the fair and it means we don’t see many early Canadian painters like Cornelius Krieghoff, William Brymner or Frederic Verner.   


This year, Montréal’s Galerie Claude Lafitte and Calgary’s Masters Gallery are both showing works from the Canadian Impressionist movement. In the 1880’s, early Canadian artists started traveling to France to study art. These painters were exposed to French Impressionism and their work explores broken colour and brushy mark making.

Three artists for collectors to watch out for at the fair from this impressionist period are Clarence Gagnon, Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, and Paul Peel. Gagnon and Suzor-Coté are excellent examples of artists who adapted the French Impressionist style to depict the Quebec winter landscape. They exploited the movements obsession with colour to incorporate hues of purple, pink and blue into their snow scenes. 

Group of Seven

The Group of Seven is considered Canada’s most iconic painting group. Their work helped usher early Canadian art into the modern era. From 1913 to 1933, these artists worked to create a uniquely Canadian painting language. It wasn’t until the Laing Galleries opened in the 1930’s that collectors discovered their art.

According to the Art Toronto program there should be an A.J. Casson paintings on view at both the Roberts Gallery (Toronto), and Oeno Gallery (Prince Edward County). The youngest member of the Group of Seven, Casson joined the group in 1926 at the invitation of Franklin Carmichael. He continued to paint well into the post war era.

The Group of Seven are best known for pure landscape subjects. However, Casson is equally celebrated for his large scale works that show scenes of village life. His interpretation of clouds is similar in aesthetic to the mountain forms, in the Algoma and Lake Superior paintings, done by Lawren Harris. Both artist incorporate a sense of pure geometric forms into their art to express the essence of nature.

For collectors looking for Group of Seven art, JEH MacDonald, Lawren Harris and Emily Carr will also be on view.


Jean-Paul Lemieux is an artist whose work acts as a bridge between the Modern and Abstract periods of art in Quebec. A student of Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté (on view at Galerie Claude Lafitte), he has a strong connection to the classical tradition. But his work is all about expression and shapes. While his work remains figurative, we can feel the pull towards abstraction that would define the work of his contemporaries.

Lemieux is not a household name like artists from the Group of Seven, but he consistently performs well at auction and is sought after by collectors. He is an artist worth noting.

This year three galleries will be showing his work at Art Toronto, including Masters Gallery, Galerie Claude Lafitte, and Miriam Shiell Fine Art. Just looking at the galleries who represent Lemieux speaks to the hybrid nature of his work. Lafitte and Masters are known for their focus on early and modern art, while Miriam Shiell specializes in abstract art (and is known to bring a couple good examples of the New York school of Abstract Expressionism for collectors to see at Art Toronto).

Marc-Aurele Fortin, Maud Lewis and Peter Clapham Sheppard will also be on view.  

Canadian Abstract Art

Colour Fields

A fun game to play at Art Toronto: test your ability to tell the difference between a Jack Bush and a William Perehudoff painting. These two Colour Field artists are both known for large, thinly painted, abstract paintings of floating shapes. Part of the crossover in their art is from the long lasting relationship they both had with the New York art critic and collector Clement Greenberg.

The trick to spotting the differences is to know a little about their biographies. Bush was a Toronto illustrator who spent a good deal of time in New York with artists from the Abstract Expressionist movement. His colours and the sense of narrative in his Colour Fields work come from his background as an illustrator.

Perehudoff was from Saskatoon, and part of the Emma Lake Workshop. His choice in colour and shape is influenced by the prairie landscape. Compared to Bush, his colours are more muted and earthy. Throughout the fair collectors can see works by landscape painters Greg Hardy and Dorothy Knowles who were part of the same Emma Lake Workshop. Comparing Perehudoff’s Colour Fields work to his landscape contemporaries makes his connection to the land more obvious.

Miriam Shiell and Masters Gallery will both be showing works by Jack Bush, and William Perehudoff will be on view at Han Art (Montreal), Masters Gallery, and Rukaj Gallery (Toronto). 

Abstract Expressionism

So far I have counted four Jean-Paul Riopelle paintings and prints expected to be on view at Art Toronto. Riopelle holds the top spot for total auction sales for a Canadian artist. There is a healthy appetite for his work in Canada but also abroad. Riopelle was part of an international group of artists working in post-war Paris. He was also part of the famous Pierre Matisse Gallery. His relationship to international artists like Joan Mitchell and Zao Wou-Ki mean that his work still sells internationally at auction. Because of the popularity of his work, it is no surprise to see so many of his works on view at the fair.

Another member of the Automatiste movement with a presence at this year’s fair is Rita Letendre. She will be showing at Masters Gallery, Galeries Claude Lafitte, and Rumi Galleries (Oakville).

Like many female artists of her generation, her work was given its dues late in her career. In 2003-2004 she had her first retrospective at the Musée National des Beaux-Arts du Québec and in 2017 the Art Gallery of Ontario presented a solo show of her work. In the past couple years the price of female artists from this period has been growing. Many were overlooked in their prime, and now we are seeing their price grow and catch up to their male counter parts.

There is a long list of Abstract painters on view at the fair. Both Painters Eleven and the Automatiste movement are well represented. For collectors looking to compare stock and price, the following artists will be shown at multiple galleries: Paul-Emile Borduas, Paterson Ewen, Ray Mead, Richard Gorman, Ron Martin, and William Ronalds.

Art Toronto Collector’s Experience

Join me the weekend of October 25-27, 2019, for a 90 minute private tour of the Art Toronto fair.

Building on what we have discussed in this post, we will use the different examples of famous Canadian painters, on view at Art Toronto, to explain how historic paintings are priced.

Why is a Lawren Harris painting done between 1918 and 1927 worth more than his later abstract work?

How does the Harris on view at Art Toronto compare to the Harris painting consigned to the Heffel Fine Art Auction House by Steve Martin?

To answer these questions, we will discuss the seven steps to evaluate fine art. We will also discuss buying art at a gallery compared to buying art at auction.

These tours are for anyone who wants to understand how the art market works before they consider buying Canadian Fine Art. 

Register now for your Collector’s Experience.

Buying for an Art Collection

Frederick Arthur Verner (1836-1928), Evening Encampment, 1876, Oil on Canvas, 14″ x 28″; 35.6 cms x 71.1 cms

The cliche in the art world is to say “buy what you love”. I agree that personal taste should be the driving force in choosing fine art to consider for purchase. But once you’ve determined a painting of interest there are a host of factors that should be taken into account before you buy for an art collection. Although each artwork requires a set of unique considerations, I have a template or process that helps guide me as I consider paintings for a collection.

Notable Acquisition    

In Spring 2019 I had the great pleasure of working with a client to purchase Evening Encampment, by Frederick Verner, at the Canadian & Inuit Fine Art auction held at Waddington’s Auction House.  

Auction Details:

Frederick Arthur Verner (1836 – 1928), Evening Encampment, 1876

Oil on Canvas, Signed and Dated, 14″ x 28″

Lot 41, May 27, 2019, Waddington’s Auction House

Price Estimate: $30,000 – $40,000; Realised Price: $66,000

Using this notable acquisition as an example, I will walk you through my decision making process when evaluating art for a collection. This painting was purchased at auction, so this article also gives an overview of how I prepare to bid at auction.

What are the steps to evaluate fine art?

  1. Find out if the artist is part of any major collections and if they are the subject of scholarly research.
  2. Compare the painting’s subject to other works by the artist.
  3. Determine what period in the artist’s career the work was painted. 
  4. Compare the paintings size to other works by the artist. The general rule of thumb is bigger is better. 
  5. Ask for a condition report or have the painting evaluated by a professional restorer. 
  6. Research the provenance of the work 
  7. Use public auction records to determine the fair market value of an artist. 

Step 1: The Artist

When evaluating an artist, I look to see if their work is collected by Museums or important private collectors; if they have had a recent exhibition nationally or internationally and if and how many books have been written about the artist. 

Frederick Arthur Verner

There is one seminal book written on the work of Verner, The Last Buffalo, by the acclaimed Canadian Art Scholar Joan Murray. 

His work is part of a long list of museum collections including the Art Gallery of Ontario, the National Gallery of Canada and the Glenbow Museum. His last major exhibition was at the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1920. 

From all of this I can determine that Frederick Verner has an important place in Canadian culture. But given the delay since his last retrospective we know that contemporary interest is not at the same level as that of an artist like Jean-Paul Riopelle or Emily Carr – who have both had museum shows in the last five year. 

Step 2: Subject

If I’m considering buying a work for a collection, we’ve already determined that the image captures my client on a visceral level. At this stage I want to understand the significance of the subject in terms of the artist’s overall production. 

The aim is to indicate work that has a series of pictorial elements that showcase what makes this artist unique and great. Here I’m relying on the opinion of Canadian Fine Art scholars who have researched and written about the artist. I also spend a lot of time looking at images by the artist in art books and at art museums.  

First Nation life in Manitoba

Verner is best known for his watercolours and oils of First Nation life in Manitoba. He is also very well known for his scenes of Buffalos on the prairies. Having actually visited and sketched Manitoba, his work is praised for its authentic depiction of 19th century Western Canada. 

Verner is part of the Romantic movement that was popular in Europe and North America in the 19th century. Like other Romantic painters, he is known for his ability to create a sense of emotion through expressive skies and atmosphere.  

In the later part of his career he moves to Europe and paints the British countryside. These are not considered as innovative as his scenes of First Nation life in Manitoba. 

The Encampment scene we are considering has a lot of key Verner elements. It is a beautiful scene of the historic First Nation culture and the scene takes place under a dramatic night sky. 

Step 3: Date

Another indicator of a paintings importance is it’s date. There is a life cycle to an artists career. Usually an artist will have an early period where they are still finding their voice. A middle period where they have success and make their name as an artist. And finally, a late period when they slow down and the work becomes less interesting. For some artists the opposite is true: they are best known for their early work.  

Period after his trip to Manitoba

Verner’s best period is considered to be from approximately 1873 to 1900 (although his later Buffalo paintings maintain their status). In 1873 he is documented as travelling west to Manitoba for the first time. During his prime period, his work is based on plein air sketches from that trip and others he did to see his subject. In the 1880s he moves to London and after 1900 he stops visiting Canada. His later work of First Nation life is criticized as less authentic.  

Of course it’s interesting to have examples of every period in an artist’s career. For most collector’s, however, there are financial restraints. So when you can’t have it all, date is another way to prioritize when buying for an art collection.  

The work we are considering is dated 1876, right after his most famous trip west, this is a great date!

Step 4: Size

As a general rule, larger works are valued more than smaller works. What is considered big or small depends on each artist. For post-war abstract artists canvases at 40” x 60” can be considered mid sized or even small. 

Historic art from the 19th century was painted on a much smaller scale. In Canadian Fine art from that period it is rare to find paintings larger than 36” x 48” and anything over 17” x 25” is considered big. 

Typically an artist like Verner work ranges from 14” x 20” to 20” x 30”. Although the artist was known to do some larger canvases. The National Gallery of Canada is home to what is considered Verner’s Chef d’Oeuvre, The Upper Ottawa, 1882, which measures nearly 6 feet wide.    

A painting like Encampment, 14” x 27”, would be considered a mid to large painting for the artist. 

Step 5: Condition

With historic art you are dealing with objects that are upwards of 150 years old. When buying for an art collection, it is very rare to find something in pristine condition with no restoration. So when considering the condition of the work, I’m not so concerned if the work has had restoration. My concern is how it was done and to what extent. 

The rule of thumb is less is more. First, I’m looking to see that inpainting (paint added by a restorer) is minimal. Next, I’m looking for signs that the canvas might need further restoration. Signs could include loose or slack canvas, pronounced craclure on paint surface, surface abrasions and paint discolouration. When I’m not sure, I get an official condition report from a professional restorer. 

Add value 

This painting was one of the very very rare cases where the painting had almost no restoration. The painting was on its original stretchers and was not relined. Most surprisingly, there were no signs of inpainting on the surface of the work.  

One issue I noticed, when viewing the painting at the auction house, was that the blue of the sky looked somewhat yellowed. The yellowing was due to the unavoidable build up of dust and dirt that occurs over time. This can be resolved, without too much hassle, by taking the work to a restorer and having the work cleaned. 

Overall this work was in incredible condition. What is more, by making a small investment to have the work professionally cleaned there was an opportunity to add value to painting. 

As part of the collection management process, I made sure to save all invoices and condition reports done by the restorer in our collection files. This kind of documentation will add value when my client chooses to sell or donate the work. 

Step 6: Provenance

The provenance of a painting is anything that can trace the history of the physical painting. This information helps to prove that the painting is authentic. An ideal provenance traces the sale history of a painting from its current owner back to the artist. Provenance can be labels from important galleries, an exhibition record or reproduction in an important book.

In Canadian Art it’s usual to see works with limited provenances. The art trade of Canadian art was only really established in the 1930’s and before that people owning Canadian paintings didn’t think to keep invoices or other documentation. 

A painting with a limited provenance is not a deterrent for me as an art advisor. Having said that a good provenance does add value to the painting.

The Verner being considered does not have provenance that would add to the paintings value.     

Step 6: Price 

Ok, so hopefully now you share my enthusiasm for this wonderful painting by Verner! Now it is time to consider price. 

Most clients build a collection out of a creative impulse, not as a way to make money. But if you are going to buy Canadian Fine Art, it requires a big investment. As part of my evaluation process, I am looking to find works that I believe will maintain their value over time.  

To evaluate the offer price of a work, I look at the auction results for similar paintings by the artist. Going through the records I found four auction results between 2003 and 2015 that were similar to the Verner up for consideration. With the information I find, I create a spreadsheet:

LotDate of SaleTitleEstimateRealised Price
Lot 41May 2018Evening Encampment30,000 – 40,000$66,00
Lot 54 Nov 2015Ojibway Camp 25,000 – 30,000$94,400
Lot 139 Nov 2008Indian Encampment80,000 – 120,000lot not sold
Lot 225 Nov 1988Indian Encampment*40,000 – 50,000$60,500
Lot 82 May 2004Ojibway Indian Encampment10,000 – 15,000$34,500
Lot 159A May 2003Indians Tending Birchbark Canoes15,000 – 20,000$32,200

The first row represents the painting I am considering as a purchase for my client’s collection. The last two columns show the price estimate and the realised price. The price estimate is given by the auction before the sale. The realised price is how much the painting sells for (including the buyer’s premium or the fee paid to the auction house). 

Most recently, I see that in 2015 a similar painting Lot 54 sold for $94,400, three times its original estimate. For three of the sales the realised price went above the high estimate. Which suggests that the value of this kind of subject is growing. 

There is one outlier to this trend, in 2008 the painting did not sell. There are a lot of reasons a painting won’t sell at auction (including bad luck). I did some digging into my auction records and found out that this same painting was offered as lot 225 and sold at auction in 1988 for $60,500. My hunch is that this painting may have failed to sell because the estimate was too high (and scared off potential buyers).

Given the fairly consistent growth in price, I anticipate the work will sell above its $30,000-$40,000 estimate. It is not clear if the painting will match the 2015 price given the failed sale of 2008. 

To get a sense of how high the price could go, I look at the overall top auction sale prices for oil paintings by Verner. His top auction record for an oil painting is $188,000 in 2015 for a painting called Indians Shooting the Rapids (lot 138), sold by Heffel. This is a unique sale. The subject of the painting is very rare and is a sought after scene showing a group canoeing down the rapids. More typically the top end of Verner’s market seems to fall between $40,000 and $70,000.

Buying at auction

Because we felt the subject, size, date and condition were all exceptional we decided to proceed with the purchase.

When buying at auction, I register as the bidder. My client emails the auction house their personal and billing information and authorises me to bid on their behalf. 

With all of the price information, my client and I decide on a maximum bid before the auction. The night of the auction I’m not making any new decisions. We have a clear plan of action and we don’t let the excitement of the night sway our emotions.  

I’m pleased to say that on this occasion we successfully purchased the painting Evening encampment by Frederick Verner for $66,000.